[abstract] EXHALE-AND-SINK BREATH-HOLD DIVE STRATEGY IN HUMANS

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[abstract] EXHALE-AND-SINK BREATH-HOLD DIVE STRATEGY IN HUMANS

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Title: [abstract] EXHALE-AND-SINK BREATH-HOLD DIVE STRATEGY IN HUMANS
Author: Murat, S
Abstract: Conventional, breath-hold diving, especially deep and/or prolonged serial diving, in humans is potentially dangerous. Side effects include: syncope, decompression illness, compressed gas narcosis and hypothermia. Presented here is a theoretical model showing the potential benefits and risks associated in the implementation of an 'exhale-and-sink apnoea diving' (ESAD) strategy compared to the orthodox 'inhale-and-swim apnoea diving' (ISAD) approach. Parts of this model are supported by the author's first-hand experience with both ISAD and ESAD strategies. Because ESAD, unlike ISAD, involves diving at functional residual capacity, the absolute amount of lung volume re-expansion during ascents is also less. This results in a reduced amount and rate of oxygen removal/reversal from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli. This may reduce (avoid?) the risk of hypoxic syncope during ascents ('shallow-water blackout'). Furthermore, because of the small amounts of gas available for absorption with the ESAD method, coupled with a wide array of advantageous physiological mechanisms (e.g., an accentuated dive response), the risk of compressed gas narcosis and/or syncope, DCS and CAGE are minimized. The potential a lung over-expansion pre-dive syncope, pulmonary barotrauma and CAGE are also circumvented. A more pronounced dive response with ESAD also enhances the body's thermoregulatory (insulative) capacity, postponing the adverse hypothermic effects of water immersion. ESAD can, however, result in pulmonary barotrauma during descents ('lung squeeze') but this can be avoided by acclimatization and long-term adaptation to a gradual and progressive increase in hydrostatic pressure.
Description: Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc. (http://www.uhms.org )
URI: http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/1570
Date: 2004

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  • UHMS Meeting Abstracts
    This is a collection of the published abstracts from the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) annual meetings.

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