Training Scuba Divers: A Fatality and Risk Analysis.

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dc.contributor.author Richardson, D en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-10-24T12:30:08Z
dc.date.available 2011-10-24T12:30:08Z
dc.date.issued 2011 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Richardson, D. Training Scuba Divers: A Fatality and Risk Analysis. In: Vann RD, Lang MA, eds. Recreational Diving Fatalities. Proceedings of the Divers Alert Network 2010 April 8-10 Workshop. Durham, N.C.: Divers Alert Network, 2011. ISBN #978-0-615-54812-8. en_US
dc.identifier.isbn 978-0-615-54812-8 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/9352
dc.description Copyright © 2011 by Divers Alert Network, 6 West Colony Place Durham, NC 27705. This book is available for download at no cost as a PDF file from the Divers Alert Network website (http://www.DiversAlertNetwork.org/). Opinions and data presented at the Conference and in these Proceedings are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Divers Alert Network. en_US
dc.description.abstract Annual records of certifications issued, resultant training dives conducted and reports of diving fatality cases collected by the Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) were examined and compared for two 10-year periods: 1989 - 1998 and 1999-2008, respectively. Three sets of data were grouped and analyzed for each of these 10-year periods: 1. Fatalities occurring during PADI-sanctioned training programs or under supervision of a PADI member while enrolled in a non-PADI program — For this data set a total of 63,041,231 training dives were conducted in the 20-year period and 17,224,125 certifications issued with a total of 304 fatalities occurring. Rates were calculated by course and cumulatively. Cumulative fatality rates were calculated at 0.482 per 100,000 dives and 1.765 per 100,000 divers for the period. Comparison between the two 10-year periods showed improvement in rates within comparable range categories for training. The yearly fatality rate ranged from 0.3 to 0.683 per 100,000 dives and from 1.167 to 2.829 per 100,000 divers for the first 10-year period and ranged from 0.283 to 0.692 per 100,000 dives and from 1.001 to 2.698 per 100,000 divers for the second 10-year period. Cause of death and a variety of contributing factors were identified. Comparison between the two 10-year periods also showed consistent representation of gender, with females comprising 28.8 percent during the first 10-year period and 28.1 percent during the second 10-year period, and males comprising 71.2 percent during the first 10-year period and 71.9 percent during the second 10-year period. 2. Diving fatalities occurring outside of PADI-sanctioned training programs and involving a PADI-certified diver — A total of 808 fatalities for the 20-year period were researched. Because a reliable denominator was not able to be calculated, fatality rates were not calculated. However, a significant increase in the number of certifications issued in the second 10-year period was noted without a correspondingly proportional increase in fatality for this data set. Cause of death and a variety of contributing factors were identified. Of note, the median age for cardiac deaths increased in the second 10-year period (40 to 51.5 years of age), but the percentage contribution from this category was comparable (31.5 percent versus 31.6 percent). 3. Fatalities involving a PADI diving professional (divemaster/ assistant instructor/ instructor) while at work — A total of 22 fatalities for instructors or divemasters at work were recorded for the 20-year period. Cause of death and a variety of contributing factors were identified. Description of activity and associated analysis to total population are included. The fatality rate per 100,000 members dropped from 1.4 in 1989-1998 to 1.1 in the 1999-2008 10-year period. The vast pool of data reflects an improvement in participant safety from the first decade to the second. This is a testimony to the commitment to the design of quality diver training and the effort put into upholding standards in the field. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship US Naval Sea Systems Command; US Office of Naval Research, Divers Alert Network en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Divers Alert Network en_US
dc.subject diving en_US
dc.subject fatality en_US
dc.subject statistics en_US
dc.subject certification en_US
dc.subject records en_US
dc.subject training en_US
dc.subject methods en_US
dc.subject Cause of death en_US
dc.subject contributing factors en_US
dc.subject risk en_US
dc.subject population en_US
dc.title Training Scuba Divers: A Fatality and Risk Analysis. en_US
dc.type Book en_US

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