The Use of Venous Gas Emboli to Validate Dive Computers

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The Use of Venous Gas Emboli to Validate Dive Computers

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dc.contributor.author Blogg, SL en_US
dc.contributor.author Møllerløkken, A en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2013-01-03T05:30:03Z
dc.date.available 2013-01-03T05:30:03Z
dc.date.issued 2012 en_US
dc.identifier.citation In: Blogg, S.L., M.A. Lang, and A. Møllerløkken, editors. 2012. Proceedings of the Validation of Dive Computers Workshop. August 24, 2011, European Underwater and Baromedical Society Symposium, Gdansk. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/10151
dc.description The publication of the Proceedings of the Validation of Dive Computer Workshop is cosponsored by NTNU and the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority. The symposium was convened by the Baromedical and Environmental Physiology Group of NTNU on August 24, 2011, at the 37th Annual Meeting of the European Underwater and Baromedical Society in Gdansk, Poland. en_US
dc.description.abstract Many decompression models use decompression sickness (DCS) as a measurable endpoint, but often it is not practical to commit the time or money to the large number of dives necessary for validation, nor is it always ethical to provoke DCS. Venous gas emboli (VGE) nearly always accompany DCS, although their presence does not have a direct relationship with clinical symptoms. However, VGE are an accepted indicator of the level of decompression stress that a diver is subject to. There are benefits in using VGE as a predictor for decompression stress. Unlike DCS, which may be misdiagnosed or underreported, the presence of bubbles is an objective measure. As VGE load may be graded, a smaller sample size can be used, as opposed to the endpoint of DCS or no-DCS. Further, the ethical limits of human studies do not have to be reached, as DCS is not the measurable endpoint. This increased sensitivity of measuring VGE allows us to use statistical methods such as the Bayesian approach, a method that employs a priori information, i.e., takes a known outcome sample and combines it with new observations, to produce a risk estimate for DCS. However, the number of dive profiles needed for validation of a dive computer (DC) is infinite. Therefore, a more simple approach is to tailor test to an envelope of the most common profiles used by the target diving population. This method may be used in order to find the optimal DC model for adoption. DCs can be tested against one another, and the DC producing the lowest decompression stress (in terms of VGE produced), then chosen. The DC could then be further validated across a range of other profiles using predictive modeling. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Norwegian University of Science and Technology. en_US
dc.subject diving computer en_US
dc.subject equipment en_US
dc.subject decompression model en_US
dc.subject decompression sickness en_US
dc.subject DCS en_US
dc.subject Venous gas emboli en_US
dc.subject VGE en_US
dc.subject methods en_US
dc.subject human en_US
dc.subject ethical considerations en_US
dc.subject decompression stress en_US
dc.subject validation en_US
dc.title The Use of Venous Gas Emboli to Validate Dive Computers en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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